So sometime last week Matt Trepal (creator of Fight Cast or Evade) pointed me at a writing technique called “7-Point Structure.” It’s not that far removed from the Snowflake Method/Five Act Structure I’ve already been using, but it is different enough that it can give you new insights on a story.
The best breakdown of it I’ve found comes from the person who first popularized it, Dan Wells, and you can see that here:
In order to sort of teach myself the ins and outs of it, I decided to make a 7-point breakdown of Zootopia, as that’s fresh in my mind and a remarkably-tight story considering the “toss everything out and start again” way it came together. I mentioned it on Twitter and had several folks express interest, so I’ve decided to post it here, because I love you.
WARNING! ZOOTOPIA SPOILERS AHEAD! BECAUSE DUH.
This discussion assumes you already have the gist of 7-point structure. If not, go watch those videos and come back. 😉 Also, Zootopia (in italics) refers to the story/movie, while Zootopia (not in italics) refers to the city itself.
As John Lasseter so aptly put it, Zootopia‘s real subject is bias, both how it effects people and how they deal with it. As I started dissecting Zootopia I rapidly came to the conclusion that it has three major arcs, to wit Judy Hopps’ arc, Nick Wilde’s arc, and an overall Zootopia’s Promise arc. They are all connected by bias: Judy’s having to cope with bias against the idea of a bunny cop as well as her own bias on the subject of foxes, Nick having internalized the bias against foxes as well as his own bias on the subject of Zootopia’s failure to live up to its own ideals, and all of Zootopia’s struggle with the messy intersection of its stated ideals and the reality of life.
In light of that, the true plot points of Zootopia aren’t necessarily a simple list of “A happened, then B happened, then C happened” but of the characters’ progression. Zootopia is a character-based story, not an event-based one. And here’s how it falls out:
|Starting Point||Hopps: Hopps is discounted as a police officer (by Bogo and Nick)|
|Nick: Nick is convinced there’s no point to being anything but “a shifty fox”|
|Zootopia: Zootopia claims to be “where anybody can be anything” but is far from that in reality|
|Plot Turn 1||Hopps and Nick: Hopps recruits Nick to help her search for Emmet|
|Zootopia: 14 animals are missing|
|Pinch 1||Hopps and Nick: Captured by Mr. Big|
|Zootopia: Manches goes savage|
|Midpoint||Hopps: Nick stands up to Bogo for Hopps|
|Nick: Hopps saves Nick’s life during the Manches chase and shows him respect and compassion|
|Zootopia: Lionheart is arrested, revealing that all the missing animals are predators turned savage|
|Pinch 2||Hopps: Hopps resigns from ZPD in despair|
|Nick: Nick feels betrayed and breaks off his friendship w/ Hopps|
|Zootopia: Zootopia is violent and full of prejudice|
|Plot Turn 2||Hopps: Hopps figures out the mystery|
|Nick: Nick realizes Hopps truly values his friendship and forgives her|
|Zootopia: Bellweather’s plot is revealed|
|Resolution||Hopps and Nick: They become respected police and equal partners|
|Zootopia: Zootopia lives up to its promise, even though “life is messy”|
The way the 7-point structure works is that you start with your desired end state and from there you make the start the opposite of that. Thus, if the end state is “Judy and Nick are partners and Zootopia is making progress on its ideals” then the beginning has to be “Judy and Nick are enemies and Zootopia is failing or actively working against its ideals.” In this particular case, it’s Bellweather who’s actively working against Zootopia’s ideals, but she wouldn’t be able to succeed if the rest of the city didn’t already have the underlying tensions that she exploits.
Each plot turn or pinch, therefore, is a stepping stone from the starting point to the resolution. An interesting thing to note is that a lot of scenes or moments that stand out about Zootopia do not actually register in terms of plot: the character of Flash for instance, while an awesome piece of set dressing, doesn’t really impact the story at all except as a plot device to burn up some of Judy’s timer and add dramatic tension to the “Nick stands up to Bogo” moment. The character of Gazelle, despite her incredibly catchy song, is not important to the plot at all except as a sort of mouthpiece for the ideals that Zootopia is failing to live up to.
This kind of analysis can show you hidden things about your story, such as empowerment issues. For instance, if you have a story full of “strong women,” but all of the plot points are driven by male characters, guess what? You still have a patriarchal story. (Not a problem in the case of Zootopia, but one I did find in another piece I applied this method to.) It can also help you boil down your story to the most essential elements, and show you where things need to be stronger.
For instance, if your resolution is “Luke becomes a fully trained Jedi” and your starting point is “Luke is a mostly-trained Jedi,” this is gonna be a pretty weaksauce arc. On the other hand, if your resolution is “Luke becomes a fully trained Jedi” and your starting point is “Luke is a powerless nobody in the middle of nowhere,” you’ve got a lot more to work with!
In the case of Zootopia, they did a really good job intertwining the characters’ arcs with the thematic (“Zootopia’s Promise”) arc. Judy and Nick have to be friends and equals at the end: therefore they have to be enemies and socially-disparate at the beginning. But the reason they are enemies is because Zootopia isn’t living up to its ideals.
Dude. That’s some tight plotting.
This, more than any adorable furry critters or catchy songs, is why Zootopia works. It’s just damn well written!